Primate species ranges from 30 g mouse lemur to 65,000 g eastern gorilla. Some prefer a solitary life while other live in a family of 3 – 5 individuals, whereas there are a few who live in a huge group of more than 1,000 individuals. Nocturnal as well as diurnal in habit, primates occupy extremely diverse habitats; from montane habitat, tropical rainforest, mangroves, savannah to human habitations. Despite such diversity, however, one thing is common among them: one in every two species are threatened and severely affected by habitat loss, deforestation and hunting/poaching. It is, therefore, necessary to constantly monitor their populations using robust methods to identify populations that are in decline in order to design appropriate conservation measures and management strategies. However, just like their diversity in habit, habitat and group sizes, there are equally diverse methods to census their populations and estimate their densities. Most of the time, a researcher find it difficult to choose, among plethora of techniques, an appropriate survey techniques that suits her/his research question. The workshop will, thus, introduce various methods of census and survey of diurnal and nocturnal primates inhabiting diverse habitats.