AimWith the aim of developing better management interventions to tackle the increasing problem of Human-Wildlife conflict (HWC) in and around Protected Areas (PAs), this study was done to find out the patterns in the variables associated with the HWC as reported in the studies from Asia and Africa. The three basic types of conflict considered in this study are- crop raiding, livestock depredation and human casualty.
MethodsLiterature review was conducted with selected 18 studies from Asia and 8 studies from Africa which reported HWC in and around PAs. Information about the identified variables was inferred subjectively and then categorized. The seven variables identified are- size of PA, type of conflict, context of conflict, attitude of locals towards wildlife, presence of poaching/retaliation killing compensation and satisfaction with compensation.
ResultsIn the PAs where crop raiding was reported, largest numbers of PAs were small sized while just one PA was large sized. In the PAs where high livestock population was reported, crop raiding was least reported and livestock depredation was most reported type of conflict. In studies which reported retaliation killing or poaching, 78.57% also reported negative attitude of locals towards wildlife. No study reported satisfaction to the compensation provided.
ConservationLarger number of studies reporting crop raiding from small sized PAs is a trend that needs to researched in detail. High livestock population in PAs may pose competition to wild ungulates as well as intensify conflict situation by presenting easier prey to carnivores. Results also suggest that the attitude of local people is very important for the conservation of wildlife and compensating them is not the best mechanism prevailing to mitigate HWC.