Madagascar, the fourth largest island in the world, is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots because of its 130 million years of isolation in the Indian Ocean. However nearly 90% of the original habitat has been devastated. Conservation efforts began in Madagascar twenty years ago. A critical evaluation of the Madagascar Environmental Action Plan features efforts that were successful with opinions on why other actions were not successful. Ranomafana National Park with 15 species of lemurs, has become a focus of eco-tourism. Centre ValBio Research station has conservation science as the foundation and core. A comparison of the costs and benefits of both tourism and research will be presented.